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Ingredients Guide

Ingredients Guide

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Power ON Power OFF Power BALANCE

Active Ingredients


Asian Ginseng Root Extract Calcium Chocolate Bean Extract COGNIZIN® Citicoline Folate Green Tea Leaf Extract Lemon Balm Herb Extract Selenium Tyrosine (as N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine) Vitamin B1 (as Thiamine) Vitamin B2 (as Riboflavin) Vitamin B3 (as Niacinamide) Vitamin B6 (as P5P) Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin) Vitamin C (as Calcium Ascorbate)
Calcium 5-HTP California Poppy Aerial Part Extract GABA Glycine L-Cystine L-Theanine Magnolia Bark Extract Melatonin Vitamin B6 (as P5P)
5-HTP Bromelain Ginger Root Extract Trehalose Tyrosine (as N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine)
Trehalose

Trehalose

What is this ingredient known for?

Trehalose is a well-known non-caloric sweetener commonly found in foods..

Why are we using it in Power BALANCE?

Function #1: Trehalose has a number of mood and neurological benefits. 

Trehalose helps maintain the structural integrity of proteins, which is important for maintaining neurological health. 

Kara NZ, Toker L, Agam G, Anderson GW, Belmaker RH, Einat H. Trehalose induced antidepressant-like effects and autophagy enhancement in mice. Psychopharmacology. 2013;229(2):367-375. doi:10.1007/s00213-013-3119-4

Miura Y, You C, Ohnishi R. Inhibition of Alzheimer amyloid β aggregation by polyvalent trehalose. Sci Technol Adv Mater. 2008;9(2):024407. doi:10.1088/1468-6996/9/2/024407

Can be found in:

Honey, Beer, Bread, Wine (and other foods produced with yeast)

Bromelain

Bromelain

What is this ingredient known for?

Bromelain is commonly used for decreasing inflammation and as a digestive enzyme.

Why are we using it in Power BALANCE?

Function #1: Bromelain has been found to increase absorption of ingredients

Bromelain has been shown to increase absorption and modify the permeability of tissues and organs, and has been studied especially in the use of medicines like antibiotics.

Kelly GS, Rev AM. Bromelain: a literature review and discussion of its therapeutic applications. Alternative Medicine Review. 1996:243–257.

Function #2: Bromelain potentially helps improve psychological well being

Bromelain has also been found in one study to improve feelings of general well-being in a group of adults suffering from mild chronic pain.

Walker AF, Bundy R, Hicks SM, Middleton RW. Bromelain reduces mild acute knee pain and improves well-being in a dose-dependent fashion in an open study of otherwise healthy adults. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(8):681-686. doi:10.1078/094471102321621269

Can be found in:

Pineapple

Ginger Root Extract

Ginger Root Extract

What is this ingredient known for?

Ginger is commonly used to alleviate various types of stomach problems in traditional herbal medicine.

Why are we using it in Power BALANCE?

Function #1: Ginger has anti-inflammatory properties

The chemical components in ginger root extract have been found to have inhibitory behaviour on proinflammatory cytokines. As such, there are broad anti-inflammatory properties that t he ingredient provides. 

Dugasani S, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;127(2):515-520. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.004

Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG. Ginger—An Herbal Medicinal Product with Broad Anti-Inflammatory Actions. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2005;8(2):125-132. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.125

Function #2: Ginger has been shown to have anti-nausea effects.

Serotonin is known to stimulate nausea as one of its core physiological functions; increased production of serotonin, therefore, can potentially lead to feeling nauseated. There is significant clinical evidence that shows that ginger can be effective for preventing and curbing nausea.

Nanthakomon T, Pongrojpaw D. The Efficacy of Ginger in Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting after Major Gynecologic Surgery. 2006;89:7.

Bryer E. A literature review of the effectiveness of ginger in alleviating mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2005;50(1):e1-e3. doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2004.08.023

Why this form?

Power BALANCE uses a standardized ginger root extract.

Can be found in:

Ginger

Tyrosine (as N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine)

Tyrosine (as N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine)

What is this known for?

L-Tyrosine is most commonly know to influence adrenaline and dopamine in the brain in order to reduce stress and improve mental performance.

Why are we using it in Power On / BALANCE?

Function #1: L-Tyrosine stimulates the production of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.

Tyrosine is a precursor to dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are excitatory neurotransmitters that are also critical for focus, attention, mood, reaction time, motivation, and memory. Alterations in the availability of L-Tyrosine can influence the synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine.

Prince J. Catecholamine Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2008;28(Suppl. 2):S39-S45. doi:10.1097/jcp.0b013e318174f92a.

Fernstrom, J, Fernstrom M. Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and catecholamine synthesis and function in the brain. The Journal of Nutrition. 2007; 137(5):S1539-S1547.

Function #2: Tyrosine increases cognitive performance during stress

L-Tyrosine appears to effectively improve cognition during short-term stressful and cognitively demanding situations. A study showed that Tyrosine was found to improve the performance on cognitive tasks while subjects were exposed simultaneously to a stressor of a loud sound. Placebo subjects in this same study had lower performance results and maintained a higher blood pressure while subjected to the stress factor.

Deijen J, Orlebeke J. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Research Bulletin. 1994;33(3):319-323. doi:10.1016/0361-9230(94)90200-3.

Young SN. L-Tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress? Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience. 2007;32(3):224.

Function #3: Tyrosine supports a balanced mood

Tyrosine has been extensively studied for its ability to support a more balanced mood, improve performance, and reduce stress and feelings of fatigue.

Banderet LE, Lieberman HR. Treatment with Tyrosine, a Neurotransmitter Precursor, Reduces Environmental Stress in Humans,. Brain Research Bulletin. 1989;22(4):759-762.

McLean A, Rubinsztein JS, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. The effects of tyrosine depletion in normal healthy volunteers: implications for unipolar depression. Psychopharmacology. 2004;171(3):286-297. doi:10.1007/s00213-003-1586-8

Leyton M, Young SN, Pihl RO, et al. Effects on Mood of Acute Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Depletion in Healthy Women. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000;22(1):52-63. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(99)00086-X

Why this form?

N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine is the acetylated form of the amino acid L-tyrosine, which is more water soluble.

Can be found in

Tyrosine is one of the amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. Tyrosine is naturally occurring in the body but can also be found in dairy products, meats, fish, eggs, nuts, beans, oats, and wheat.

Vitamin B3 (as Niacinamide)

Vitamin B3 (as Niacinamide)

What is this known for?

Vitamin B3, also known as niacin, is an essential B-vitamin that primarily contributes to cardiovascular health. However, the effects of niacin have also been theorized to extend to growth and cognition through increased NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) levels.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Vitamin B3 is a crucial ingredient for producing brain energy (ATP).

Vitamin B3 is a precursor to ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for energy production. ATP is the source of energy that your body uses to keep everything going and functioning. It is the biochemical way to store and use energy – it is the primary energy carrier in all living beings.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Function #2: Vitamin B3 is a crucial ingredient for producing NAD, which is another important energy source

Vitamin B3 is a precursor to NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) that helps generate energy and support vital processes in the body. NAD+ is also a key co-enzyme in the production of brain energy (ATP), and many brain cell functions are dependant on Vitamin B3 derived nucleotides such as NAD+.

Rennie G, Chen A, Dhillon H, Vardy J, Damian D. Nicotinamide and neurocognitive function. Nutritional Neuroscience. 2014;18(5):193-200. doi:10.1179/1476830514y.0000000112.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Function #3: Vitamin B3 helps support neurotransmitter production

Vitamin B3 also affects cognitive function by stimulating the production of neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Vitamin B3 is required for producing NAD and NADH, which is in turn needed for dopamine production. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter known for its role in cognition and attention.

Wakade C, Chong R. A novel treatment target for Parkinson's disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2014;347(1-2):34-38. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2014.10.024.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Why this form?

The niacin form has a high side effect profile, including uncomfortable redness and itching sensation of the skin, even at relatively low doses for some people. This water soluble form, niacinamide, is safe and efficacious.

Can be found in:

Milk, eggs, rice, fish, beef, turkey, chicken, legumes, and peanuts

Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate)

Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate)

What is this known for?

Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate is known for being the active form of Vitamin B6 and being an important coenzyme in the body. It's a necessary cofactor in the formation of various important neurotransmitters and also supports sleep/wake cycles.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: P5P participates in the formation of neurotransmitters

P5P is a critical coenzyme and an essential cofactor in the formation of several neurotransmitters (such as serotonin, melatonin, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine). These neurotransmitters are all involved with the arousal/sedation states, and thus help support both the sleep/wake cycles (hence why P5P is both in On/Off).

Yarlagadda A, Clayton AH. Blood Brain Barrier: The Role of Pyridoxine. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2007;4(8):58-60.

Function #2: P5P increases dopamine synthesis

The enzyme that converts into dopamine (L-DOPA) is P5P reliant – it is thought that more P5P increases the activity of the enzyme in the hypothalamus, thus helping in the synthesis of dopamine. Adversely, a deficiency in P5P inhibits L-DOPA activity. This is important as dopamine is a neurotransmitter well-known for its role in cognition and focus.

Allen G, Neergheen V, Oppenheim M et al. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate deficiency causes a loss of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase in patients and human neuroblastoma cells, implications for aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase and vitamin B6 deficiency states. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2010:no-no. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06742.x.

Mappouras D, Stiakakis J, Fragoulis E. Purification and characterization of L-DOPA decarboxylase from human kidney. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 1990;94(2):147-156. doi:10.1007/bf00214121.

Function #3: Vitamin B6 helps regulate and synthesize GABA & Serotonin

Even a mild deficiency in Vitamin B6 may result in a down-regulation of GABA and serotonin synthesis. This deficiency would result in GABA activity disruption, leading to obstructed sleep as GABA is the central nervous system’s chief inhibitor neurotransmitter. Vitamin B6 supplementing can assist with preventing this.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Why this form?

We use the biological form of this because it allows us to use a small dose and prevents any potential polymorphisms an individual may have in converting Vitamin B6 to its biological form P5P. This prevents the work of the body and allows the nutrient to immediately start doing its job.

Can be found in:

Beef liver, potato, salmon, tuna, turkey, avocado, chicken, spinach, banana, and chickpeas

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

What is this known for?

Vitamin B1 is known for its role as part of energy production and nervous system.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Vitamin B1 is a crucial ingredient for producing brain energy (ATP)

Vitamin B1 is a required ingredient as part of the Krebs Cycle. The main function of the Krebs pathway is to contribute to the production of adenosine triphosphate. ATP then serves as energy source in the brain and in all other cells in the body.

Gibson GE, Blass JP. Nutrition and Functional Neurochemistry. In: Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, et al., editors. Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. 6th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1999.

Osiezagha K, Ali S, Freeman C, et al. Thiamine Deficiency and Delirium. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience. 2013;10(4):26-32.

Function #2: Vitamin B1 is involved in neurotransmitter production as part of pentose phosphate pathway

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway is a pathway that occurs in various parts of the human body (including the brain). Thiamine is a required cofactor in the Pentose Phosphate Pathway and its involvement leads to producing a number of crucial molecular products including neurotransmitters. Disruption of thiamine involvement in this process can lead to injuries in neuronal cells.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Kruger N, von Schaewen A. The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway: structure and organisation. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2003;6(3):236-246. doi:10.1016/s1369-5266(03)00039-6

Osiezagha K, Ali S, Freeman C, et al. Thiamine Deficiency and Delirium. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience. 2013;10(4):26-32.

Gibson GE, Blass JP. Nutrition and Functional Neurochemistry. In: Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, et al., editors. Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. 6th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1999.

Function #3: Vitamin B1 is involved in neurotransmitter modulation for acetylcholine

Thiamine is important to the health of the nervous system because of its role in the synthesis of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter. Thiamine’s role in its synthesis is as a cofactor with acetyl-CoA to produce acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, in turn, is a neurotransmitter that stimulates muscle control and behaviour. It is also a transmitter in the brain region, and is required for memory and cognition.

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al., editors. Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. Acetylcholine. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11143/

Hirsch J, Parrott J. New Considerations on the Neuromodulatory Role of Thiamine. Pharmacology. 2012;89(1-2):111-116. doi:10.1159/000336339.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Why this form?

While deficiencies of thiamin in the United States are extremely rare, there have been emerging studies showing a higher rate of thiamin deficiency among those suffering from obesity. Thiamin has a high rate of absorbability.

Can be found in:

Nuts, seeds, beef liver, pork, chicken, turkey, legumes, peas and wheat germ

Selenium (as L-Selenomethionine)

Selenium (as L-Selenomethionine)

What is this known for?

Selenium is most commonly known these days for its antioxidant effects. It is also required for important antioxidant enzymes in the brain and other tissues.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Selenium is essential for neurotransmission.

Selenium is vital for various functions of the brain. Selenium was shown to be involved in diverse functions of the central nervous system, including in GABA, dopamine and acetylcholine-related pathways. These pathways contribute to motor performance, coordination, memory and cognition.

Solovyev N. Importance of selenium and selenoprotein for brain function: From antioxidant protection to neuronal signalling. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 2015;153:1-12. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.09.003.

Function #2: Selenium has antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties

Selenium plays an important role in the body’s anti-oxidation system; it can cooperate with other antioxidants, such as Vitamin C, with protecting the cells from free radicals. Too many free radical activity can upset functions performed by membranes. The role of selenium in neurotransmission might not only be limited to antioxidant properties but also to inflammation.

Duntas L. Selenium and Inflammation: Underlying Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms. Hormone and Metabolic Research. 2009;41(06):443-447. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1220724.

Why this form?

Selenomethionine is the natural form of the trace mineral, formed in plants like brazil nuts. It is highly absorbable in this form, as opposed to the mineral form, selenium.

Can be found in:

Brazil nuts, seafood, organ meats, and dairy

GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid)

GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid)

What is this ingredient known for?

GABA is well known as the brain’s natural calming neurotransmitter. It is an amino acid that is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It promotes sleep and relaxation.

Why are we using it in Power Off?

Function #1: GABA activates the sleep-related part of the brain called the VLPO

The neurons responsible for sleep are located in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). These contain GABA, and are active during sleep. They have been shown to play a central role in quieting the arousal system during sleep as the VLPO makes inhibitory signals to surrounding arousal-promoting nuclei, thus turning off the arousal system.

Saper C, Chou T, Scammell T. The sleep switch: hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness. Trends in Neurosciences. 2001;24(12):726-731. doi:10.1016/s0166-2236(00)02002-6.

Schwartz J, Roth T. Neurophysiology of Sleep and Wakefulness: Basic Science and Clinical Implications. Current Neuropharmacology. 2008;6(4):367-378. doi:10.2174/157015908787386050.

Function #2: GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter

Inhibitory neurotransmitters block nerve impulses. GABA, when bound to adjacent cells, “tells” the cells not to fire–not to send an impulse. Low levels of GABA would result in nerve cells firing too often and easily, and this can be seen in some anxiety disorders such as panic attacks, which are associated with low GABA levels.

Lydiard RB. The role of GABA in anxiety disorders. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003;64:21-27.

Long Z, Medlock C, Dzemidzic M, Shin Y, Goddard A, Dydak U. Decreased GABA levels in anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex in panic disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 2013;44:131-135. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.01.020.

Why this form?

It has been widely debated whether or not GABA passes the blood brain barrier when you ingest the commonly found supplement orally. Some studies suggest that it is only able to increase GABA levels only in very small amounts when larger amounts are ingested.

Power Off uses a proprietary, highly absorbable form of GABA made specifically to be very small as a nanoliposome, efficiently passing the blood brain barrier.

Can be found in

Spinach, shrimp, potato, yam, kale, and bean sprouts.

Folate

Folate

What is this ingredient known for?

Primarily known for being a “pregnancy supplement.” Apart from that however it is also crucial for energy production, amino acid synthesis, and encouraging cell and tissue growth.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Folate is crucial for proper brain function and good mental health.

Folic acid supplementation has been found to improve cognitive function, like due to its anti-inflammatory effects and positive effect on DHA and EPA. Folate also is believed to play an important role in maintaining good mental health.

Das U. Folic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cognitive function and prevent depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease—But how and why?. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2008;78(1):11-19. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2007.10.006.

Alpert J, Mischoulon D, Nierenberg A, Fava M. Nutrition and depression: focus on folate. Nutrition. 2000;16(7-8):544-546. doi:10.1016/s0899-9007(00)00327-0.

Function #2: Folic acid is generally seen as a neuroprotective nutrient.

Studies show that interaction between folic acid and Vitamin B12 have found associations with cognitive decline when Vitamin B12 is insufficient, and associations with neuroprotection when B12 is sufficient. Cognitive decline was measured in terms of study participants’ scores on the digit-symbol coding test.

Morris MS, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2007;85(1):193-200.

Why this form?

We use the biological form of folate to circumvent any polymorphisms present in the population and to be sure we provide the most active form of the nutrient.

Can be found in

A wide variety of food including vegetables, fruits, fruit juices. Spinach, yeast, liver, asparagus, and brussel sprouts have high amounts of folate.

Cognizin® (Citicoline)

Cognizin® (Citicoline)

What is this ingredient known for?

Citicoline is well-known for its nootropic effects in helping increase cognitive performance, increase mental energy, and improve brain health.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Citicoline increases phosphatidylcholine synthesis

Phosphatidylcholine forms brain cell membranes, which is required for healthy functioning brain. The deterioration of these brain cell membranes is thought to be related to age-related cognitive decline. A study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 12 weeks with 19 elderly subjects showed an increase in the synthesis of these cell membranes using a 500 mg daily supplementation of citicoline.

S. B, L. W, B. C et al. Chronic citicoline increases phosphodiesters in the brains of healthy older subjects: an in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Psychopharmacology. 2002;161(3):248-254. doi:10.1007/s00213-002-1045-y.

Function #2: Citicoline increases ATP (brain energy) production

Increased ATP production in the brain equates to more mental energy, allowing greater ability to focus and perform cognitively demanding tasks. Studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy conducted over 6 weeks in 16 healthy men and women showed an increase of 14% of ATP in the brain using a 500 mg daily supplementation of citicoline.

Silveri M, Dikan J, Ross A et al. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR in Biomedicine. 2008;21(10):1066-1075. doi:10.1002/nbm.1281.

Function #3: Citicoline increases attentional focus

Evidence suggests that citicoline supplementation has a positive effect on attention span and motor speed. A study with 60 healthy adult women supplemented with 250/500 mg of citicoline daily over 28 days showed improved cognitive inhibition and improved attentional performance compared to placebo. Similarly, a study with adolescent males supplemented with citicoline over 28 days showed improved levels of attention and psychomotor speed.

McGlade E, Locatelli A, Hardy J et al. Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2012;03(06):769-773. doi:10.4236/fns.2012.36103.

McGlade E, Agoston A, DiMuzio J et al. The Effect of Citicoline Supplementation on Motor Speed and Attention in Adolescent Males. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2015. doi:10.1177/1087054715593633.

Function #4: Citicoline increases acetylcholine levels in the brain

Cognizin provides citicoline, which in combination with phosphatidylcholine (which is converted from citicoline), can contribute to increased acetylcholine levels in the brain. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter that is crucial for cognitive functions such as learning and memory formation.

Gareri P, Castagna A, Cotroneo A, Putignano S, De Sarro G, Bruni A. The role of citicoline in cognitive impairment: pharmacological characteristics, possible advantages, and doubts for an old drug with new perspectives. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2015:1421. doi:10.2147/cia.s87886.

Why this form?

COGNIZIN® Citicoline is a direct precursor to acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine which allows for improving memory and other mental functions. The only dietary sources of citicoline, like liver and brains, are rare in the average American diet. While dietary choline can be synthesized by the body, supplementation allows for more direct absorption

Can be found in

Liver and brains are a sources for for citicoline. Liver, meat, beans, eggs and cruciferous vegetables are a good source of choline, which the body can use to synthesize into citicoline.

Vitamin C (as Calcium Ascorbate)

Vitamin C (as Calcium Ascorbate)

What is this ingredient known for?

Vitamin C is conventionally used as an antioxidant and for immune support.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Vitamin C is a critical antioxidant in the brain.

Vitamin C is often heralded as the most powerful water-soluble antioxidant and protects the brain’s cellular membranes from free radicals generated from neuronal mitochondrial activity. Free radicals are highly reactive atoms or molecules that can cause damage to cells when they react with them, causing chain reactions that result in cell death or poor cell function. Antioxidants such as Vitamin C can react freely with free-radicals, preventing this process from beginning.

Harrison FE, May JM. Vitamin C Function in the Brain: Vital Role of the Ascorbate Transporter (SVCT2). Free radical biology & medicine. 2009;46(6):719-730. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.12.018.

Function #2: Vitamin C is crucial for neurotransmitter synthesis

Vitamin C is required to convert tryptophan, an amino acid that you can get from consuming protein, into serotonin and to convert dopamine into norepinephrine. It is also required by some critical enzymes as a cofactor, most particularly those that synthesize neurotransmitters such as dopamine and adrenaline.

Prerana G, Sanchit T, Jigar H. Relationship Between Depression and Vitamin C Status: A Study on Rural Patients From Western Uttar Pradesh in India. International Journal of Scientific Study. 2014;1(4):37-39.

Harrison FE, May JM. Vitamin C Function in the Brain: Vital Role of the Ascorbate Transporter (SVCT2). Free radical biology & medicine. 2009;46(6):719-730. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.12.018.

Function #3: Vitamin C helps modulate neurotransmission

Vitamin C participates in central nervous system signal transduction through neurotransmitters, and Vitamin C is suggested to influence this process via modulating of binding of neurotransmitters to receptors as well as regulating their release. Furthermore, Vitamin C is involved in the synthesis and modulation of nervous system hormones by serving as a cofactor for dopamine β-hydroxylase, which is involved in modulating neurotransmitter receptors.

Kocot J, Luchowska-Kocot D, Kiełczykowska M, Musik I, Kurzepa J. Does Vitamin C Influence Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders? Nutrients. 2017;9(7):659. doi:10.3390/nu9070659.

Englard S, Seifter S. The Biochemical Functions of Ascorbic Acid. Annual Review of Nutrition. 1986;6(1):365-406. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.06.070186.002053.

Harrison FE, May JM. Vitamin C Function in the Brain: Vital Role of the Ascorbate Transporter (SVCT2). Free radical biology & medicine. 2009;46(6):719-730. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.12.018.

Rebec G, Christopher Pierce R. A vitamin as neuromodulator: Ascorbate release into the extracellular fluid of the brain regulates dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission. Progress in Neurobiology. 1994;43(6):537-565. doi:10.1016/0301-0082(94)90052-3.

Why this form?

While Vitamin C deficiency as scurvy is rare, subclinical deficiency is common among at-risk populations with poor nutrition. The calcium ascorbate form of vitamin C is considered “buffered”, having a high pH and is gentle on the stomach and gastrointestinal tract when compared with the ascorbic acid form.

Can be found in

Oranges, Grapefruit, Lemons, Strawberries, Tomato, Red Pepper, Broccoli, Potato and spinach (to name a few)

Lemon Balm Herb Extract (Melissa Officinalis)

Lemon Balm Herb Extract (Melissa Officinalis)

What is this ingredient known for?

Lemon Balm is traditionally used as a supplement to promote a healthy mood, calmness and sleep.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Lemon Balm improves memory while increasing calmness.

Lemon balm has been found to improve memory performance, improve the speed of timed memory tasks while increasing ‘calmness’ in human studies. Other studies also cite that Lemon Balm is generally associated with mood improvements and cognitive performance (attention, concentration, and memory).

Kennedy D, Scholey A, Tildesley N, Perry E, Wesnes K. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2002;72(4):953-964. doi:10.1016/s0091-3057(02)00777-3.

Scholey A, Gibbs A, Neale C et al. Anti-Stress Effects of Lemon Balm-Containing Foods. Nutrients. 2014;6(11):4805-4821. doi:10.3390/nu6114805.

Why this form?

Power On contains a standardized form of Lemon balm.

Can be found in

Lemon Balm is a plant in the mint family that is used as a herb, in teas, etc.

Chocolate Bean Extract

Chocolate Bean Extract

What is this ingredient known for?

Dark chocolate has become better known for its health benefits, especially for the heart.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Chocolate flavonols may increase cognitive function and reduce mental fatigue.

Some evidence suggests that cocoa flavonols may improve acute cognitive function. One randomized, blinded, double-blinded trial with 30 healthy adult subjects reported increased acute cognitive performance in the areas of attention and concentration in tests. Decreased self-reported mental fatigue were also reported in this study.

Scholey A, French S, Morris P, Kennedy D, Milne A, Haskell C. Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2009;24(10):1505-1514. doi:10.1177/0269881109106923.

Function #2: Chocolate flavonols increase blood flow to the brain.

Multiple studies have shown that chocolate bean flavonols increase nitric oxide production, which increases blood flow. One particular study that was highly referenced in the news showed that consumption of flavonol-rich cocoa boosted blood flow to key areas of the brain for 2 - 3 hours in 16 healthy subjects using functional MRI scans.

Francis S, Head K, Morris P, Macdonald I. The Effect of Flavanol-rich Cocoa on the fMRI Response to a Cognitive Task in Healthy Young People. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 2006;47(Supplement 2):S215-S220. doi:10.1097/00005344-200606001-00018.

Why this form?

Power On contains a proprietary chocolate extract with concentrated flavanols.

Can be found in:

Chocolate, cocoa beans, etc.

California Poppy Aerial Part Extract

California Poppy Aerial Part Extract

What is this ingredient known for?

California Poppy Extract has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties.

Why are we using it in Power Off?

Function #1: California Poppy promotes relaxation.

California Poppy has been traditionally used to promote relaxation by offering a mild sedative influence on the central nervous system, likely via the activation of benzodiazepine receptors. Multiple mouse studies have been able to validate this effect, though no human clinical trials have been conducted to show this.

Rolland A, Fleurentin J, Lanhers M et al. Behavioural Effects of the American Traditional Plant Eschscholzia californica: Sedative and Anxiolytic Properties. Planta Medica. 1991;57(03):212-216. doi:10.1055/s-2006-960076.

Rolland A, Fleurentin J, Lanhers M, Misslin R, Mortier F. Neurophysiological Effects of an Extract of Eschscholzia californica Cham.(Papaveraceae). Phytotherapy Research. 2001;15(5):377-381. doi:10.1002/ptr.884.

Function #2: California Poppy may inhibit adrenaline synthesis.

Studies show that extracts from the California Poppy may inhibit the synthesis of adrenaline. This is important because overexcitability or restlessness that leads to difficulty sleeping is caused by increased levels of adrenaline and other stress hormones in your system.

Kleber E, Schneider W, Schäfer HL, Elstner EF. Modulation of key reactions of the catecholamine metabolism by extracts from Eschscholtzia californica and Corydalis cava. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995 Feb;45(2):127-31.

Fedurco M, Gregorová J, Šebrlová K et al. Modulatory Effects of Eschscholzia californica Alkaloids on Recombinant GABA-A. Receptors. Biochemistry Research International. 2015;2015:1-9. doi:10.1155/2015/617620.

Why this form?

Power On uses a highly standardized extract using the aerial part of the plant. The extract has no traces of poppy seeds.

Can be found in

California Poppy

Melatonin

Melatonin

What is this known for?

Melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone produced in the brain that helps to regulate sleep and wakefulness. Over the counter sales of melatonin can be used to help to regulate one's circadian rhythm and may improve sleep quality. Melatonin is most commonly used to help decrease jet lag and adjust sleep cycles.

Why are we using it in Power Off?

Function #1: Melatonin regulates sleep/wake cycles and reduces sleep latency.

Melatonin regulates sleep via two different melatonin receptors in the brain, MT1 and MT2. MT2 receptors help with facilitating changes in the circadian rhythm (phase shifting), while the MT1 receptors exert suppressive actions on cell activation. Regulating phase shifting is important for people suffering from jet lag, irregular sleep cycles, or insomnia. A study showed that Melatonin was effective in reducing symptoms of insomnia such as sleep latency, which helps people fall asleep faster.

Dubocovich M. Melatonin receptors: Role on sleep and circadian rhythm regulation. Sleep Medicine. 2007;8:34-42. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2007.10.007.

Liu C, Weaver D, Jin X et al. Molecular Dissection of Two Distinct Actions of Melatonin on the Suprachiasmatic Circadian Clock. Neuron. 1997;19(1):91-102. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80350-5.

Luthringer R, Muzet M, Zisapel N, Staner L. The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia. International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2009;24(5):239-249. doi:10.1097/yic.0b013e32832e9b08.

Function #2: Melatonin improves sleep quality in individuals

Poor sleep quality and non-restorative sleep are increasingly being recognized as symptoms for insomnia. Melatonin is widely thought to improve sleep quality. A study using prolonged release melatonin showed that subjects reported significantly increased sleep quality and morning alertness without withdrawal symptoms after discontinuing use.

Lemoine P, Nir T, Laudon M, Zisapel N. Prolonged-release melatonin improves sleep quality and morning alertness in insomnia patients aged 55 years and older and has no withdrawal effects. Journal of Sleep Research. 2007;16(4):372-380. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2007.00613.x.

Why this form?

We are using the standard form of melatonin used in high quality supplements.

Can be found in

Naturally occurring melatonin can be found in foods like cherries, tomatoes, walnuts, and strawberries.

L-Theanine

L-Theanine

What is this ingredient known for?

L-Theanine is well-known as a relaxing, but non-sedating amino acid supplement.

Why are we using it in Power Off?

Function #1: L-Theanine promotes a calming response.

L-Theanine may help inhibit cortisol neuron excitation, which promotes a calming response in the body and promotes staying asleep. Studies show that people report reductions in perceived stress when given Theanine in standard doses.

Yoto A, Motoki M, Murao S, Yokogoshi H. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses. Journal of Physiological Anthropology. 2012;31(1):28. doi:10.1186/1880-6805-31-28.

Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja L, Ohira H. l-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biological Psychology. 2007;74(1):39-45. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006.

Function #2: L-Theanine has been shown to improve sleep quality.

Clinical studies have indicated that subjects taking L-Theanine obtained significantly higher sleep percentage (sleep efficiency) and reduced nocturnal motor activity scores compared to those on a placebo.

Rao T, Ozeki M, Juneja L. In Search of a Safe Natural Sleep Aid. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2015;34(5):436-447. doi:10.1080/07315724.2014.926153.

Lyon, MR, Kapoor MP, Juneja LR. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Alternative Medicine Review. 2011;16.4:348.

Can be found in:

The leaves of Camellia Sinensis (green, black and white tea)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

What is this known for?

Vitamin B2 is the precursor to coenzymes that act as electron carriers in cellular energy production and many metabolic pathways. It is involved in energy production and neurotransmitter support, and is commonly used for reating riboflavin deficiency, treating migraines, increasing energy levels and boosting immune system function.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Vitamin B2 is a crucial ingredient for producing brain energy (ATP)

Vitamin B2 is a required ingredient as part of the Krebs Cycle, which contributes to the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is important as it is responsible for providing the energy needed to perform many functions in the body, including nerve impulses and muscle contractions.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Function #2: B2 is a crucial ingredient for producing FAD

B2 is an essential ingredient to producing FAD, which is essential to many redox reactions performed by human cells. These flavin coenzymes are critical for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy. A deficiency in FAD has been linked to several diseases, including neurological disorders. Supplementing Vitamin B2 helps with preventing such a deficiency.

Barile M, Anna Giancaspero T, Brizio C et al. Biosynthesis of Flavin Cofactors in Man: Implications in Health and Disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2013;19(14):2649-2675. doi:10.2174/1381612811319140014.

Powers, H. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003;77(6): 1352-1360.

Why this form?

This is the standard form of riboflavin and is readily absorbed. Deficiencies are extremely rare in the United States, thus polymorphisms have not been accounted for with the use of this nutrient.

Can be found in:

Dairy products, eggs, beef, chicken, turkey, fish, organ meats, and nuts

Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin)

Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin)

What is this known for?

Vitamin B12 has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is a water soluble essential vitamin that is used as an enzymatic cofactor.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Vitamin B12 helps maintain healthy brain cell membranes.

Deficiency in B12 results in a functional folate deficiency, which can leads to decreased gene expression/transcription. This could hamper cell repair, and compromise the integrity of membrane phospholipids – which are essentially barriers in a cell – impairing your brain’s ability to send signals.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Function #2: Vitamin B12 is a crucial ingredient for producing brain energy (ATP)

Vitamin B12 is a required ingredient as part of the Krebs Cycle, which contributes to the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP serves as energy in the brain and all other cells in the body. B12 deficiency is relatively common, especially among older people; vegan and vegetarians are also at risk.

Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068.

Why this form?

We employ the biological form of Vitamin B12, methylcobalamin, to take into account potential polymorphisms that may prevent optimal conversion of B12 from food into the biological form used by the body (methylcobalamin or 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin). This way we cut right to the chase and let this nutrient do its job as part of Power On.

Can be found in:

Clams, mussels, crab, beef, salmon, milk, turkey, egg, and chicken (to simplify all unprocessed animal proteins are a source of B12)

5-HTP (as Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract)

5-HTP (as Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract)

What is this known for?

5-HTP is generally advertised in dietary supplements for neurotransmitter and mood support.

Why are we using it in Power Off / Balance?

Function #1: 5-HTP increases serotonin production.

As a chemical precursor to serotonin, 5-HTP increases the production of serotonin. Increased serotonin levels promotes relaxation and reduces intermittent awakenings during the night, which enhances sleep quality. This has been shown in hundreds of studies in humans. One study also showed how safe this ingredient is even in children and how it can prevent intermittent awakenings during the night.

Bruni O, Ferri R, Miano S, Verrillo E. l -5-Hydroxytryptophan treatment of sleep terrors in children. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2004;163(7). doi:10.1007/s00431-004-1444-7.

Function #2: 5-HTP supports a more balanced mood.

5-HTP has been studied since the 1970s for its ability to support a more balanced mood.

Birdsall TC. 5-Hydroxytryptophan: a clinically-effective serotonin precursor. Altern Med Rev. 1998;3(4):271-280.

Jangid P, Malik P, Singh P, Sharma M, Gulia AKD. Comparative study of efficacy of l-5-hydroxytryptophan and fluoxetine in patients presenting with first depressive episode. Asian J Psychiatr. 2013;6(1):29-34. doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2012.05.011

Kious BM, Sabic H, Sung Y-H, Kondo DG, Renshaw P. An Open-Label Pilot Study of Combined Augmentation With Creatine Monohydrate and 5-Hydroxytryptophan for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor– or Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor–Resistant Depression in Adult Women. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2017;37(5):578. doi:10.1097/JCP.0000000000000754

Why this form?

Griffonia simplicifolia is a plant native to west and central Africa. It is a natural source of 5HTP. In the human diet, we manufacture 5-HTP from dietary tryptophan. Having a direct natural source of 5-HTP instead of tryptophan is ideal because it removes multiple biological steps and is easily converted to serotonin.

Can be found in:

5-HTP is not commonly found in any foods; we normally manufacture it in our bodies using the amino acid tryptophan, which is an amino acid found in plant and animal proteins (milk, meat, potatoes, pumpkin, and various greens.). However, some plants do produce it naturally, like the griffonia simplicifolia that we use as a natural extract.

Green Tea Leaf Extract

Green Tea Leaf Extract

What is this ingredient known for?

Green tea extract supplements are known for a very broad range of benefits, but more prominently for being a very potent antioxidant.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: EGCG in green tea increases cognitive performance.

In clinical research on human subjects, one component of green tea (EGCG) has been found to increase performance in tests for visual memory, enhance the ability to control responses and the ability to plan or make calculations.

de la Torre, R et al. Safety and efficacy of cognitive training plus epigallocatechin-3-gallate in young adults with Down's syndrome (TESDAD): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. The Lancet Neurology. 2016; 15.8: 801-810.

Function #2: Green Tea Extract increases brain connectivity.

Other research has shown green tea extract enhances functional connectivity from the parietal to the frontal cortex. This impact on effective connectivity was found to be related to green tea induced improvement in cognitive performance.

Schmidt A, Hammann F, Wölnerhanssen B et al. Green tea extract enhances parieto-frontal connectivity during working memory processing. Psychopharmacology. 2014;231(19):3879-3888. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3526-1.

Why this form?

Power On contains a standardized form of Green Tea extract, rich in epigallocatechin gallate.

Can be found in:

Green tea leaves

Magnolia Officinalis Bark Extract

Magnolia Officinalis Bark Extract

What is this known for?

Magnolia has been used in traditional herbal medicine for centuries to support a calm and positive mood, relaxation, immunity, and stress and weight management.

Why are we using it in Power Off?

Function #1: The Honokiol in Magnolia stimulates sleep-promoting neurons in the brain.

Honokiol modulates GABA, which is responsible for stimulating the sleep-promoting area of the brain called the VLPO. Honkiol also increases the activity of GABA-A receptors, which causes an inhibitory effect on neurotransmitters by decreasing the chances for nerve impulses. Both of these mechanisms promotes a calming response in the brain and help shorten the amount of time it takes to fall asleep.

Alexeev M, Grosenbaugh D, Mott D, Fisher J. The natural products magnolol and honokiol are positive allosteric modulators of both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABAA receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62(8):2507-2514. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.03.002.

Woodbury A, Yu S, Wei L, García P. Neuro-Modulating Effects of Honokiol: A Review. Frontiers in Neurology. 2013;4. doi:10.3389/fneur.2013.00130.

Function #2: Magnolia may offer neuroprotective effects by reducing free radicals in the brain.

Too much free radical activity can upset functions performed by membranes in the brain. Magnolia has been found to reduce radical oxygen species, and has been studied specifically in the context of decreasing the rate of neuronal cell death in-vitro.

Hoi C, Ho Y, Baum L, Chow A. Neuroprotective effect of honokiol and magnolol, compounds from Magnolia officinalis, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Phytotherapy Research. 2010;24(10):1538-1542. doi:10.1002/ptr.3178.

Function #3: Magnolia helps modulate acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in attention and memory.

Excessive acetylcholinerase activity leads to an acetylcholine deficiency, which may affect memory. Magnolia Officinalis helps inhibit acetylcholinerase activity.

Lee Y, Yuk D, Kim T et al. Protective effect of the ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis and 4-O-methylhonokiol on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Journal of Natural Medicines. 2009;63(3):274-282. doi:10.1007/s11418-009-0330-z.

Woodbury A, Yu S, Wei L, García P. Neuro-Modulating Effects of Honokiol: A Review. Frontiers in Neurology. 2013;4. doi:10.3389/fneur.2013.00130.

Why this form?

Power Off contains a special standardized Magnolia extract that is rich in honokiol.

Can be found in:

Magnolia Bark

L-Cystine

L-Cystine

What is this ingredient known for?

Cystine is commonly known its role in collagen production, which is essential for healthy skin, hair, bones, joints and other connective tissue.

Why are we using it in Power Off?

Function #1: L-Cystine helps downregulate excitatory neurotransmitters.

L-Cystine is a key ingredient to an enzyme known as PNMT (phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase). This enzyme system takes the long lasting stress neurotransmitter norepinephrine and converts it to the short lasting stress neurotransmitter epinephrine. This supports your nervous system in ‘coming down’ from an exciting event and then switching to a relaxed state gently and naturally.

Usdin E. Biochemistry Of S-Adenosylmethionine And Related Compounds. London: Macmillan; 1982.

Parvez H. Methods In Neurotransmitter And Neuropeptide Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1993.

Why this form?

L-Cystine is the dimer form of the amino acid L-Cysteine. The dimer form of L-cysteine is more stable and readily absorbable.

Can be found in:

Animal proteins, like meat and eggs.

Calcium (as Calcium Citrate)

Calcium (as Calcium Citrate)

What is this ingredient known for?

Calcium is most commonly known for its role as a supplement for bone health, but it is actually essential for a lot more functions in the body.

Why are we using it in Power On / Off?

Function #1: Calcium is required for neurotransmitter signalling.

SSudhof T. Calcium Control of Neurotransmitter Release. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 2011;4(1):a011353-a011353. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a011353.

Why this form?

These forms of calcium has a high rate of absorption and is gentle on the gastrointestinal tract.

Can be found in

Milk, yogurt, cheese, dark green leafy vegetables, almonds

Glycine

Glycine

What is this known for?

Glycine is a precursor to proteins and an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Recent reviews (from 2014) suggest that glycine can improve sleep quality

Why are we using it in Power Off?

Function #1: Improves cognitive and memory function after waking up

This improvement in cognitive functions can be noticed the day after taking glycine (so there are improvements after taking glycine the night before and then waking up in the morning). For example, a Japanese study looked at the effects of glycine the day after taking it, and this study revealed that glycine lessened daytime sleepiness and improved performance of memory recognition tasks.

Yamadera W, Inagawa K, Chiba S, Bannai M, Takahashi M, Nakayama K. Glycine ingestion improves subjective sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating with polysomnographic changes. Sleep and Biological Rhythms. 2007;5(2):126-131. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2007.00262.x.

Function 2: Improves sleep quality by reducing the amount of time to fall asleep

In persons undergoing mild sleep deprivation, 3g of glycine an hour prior to sleep was able to increase sleep quality and improve self-reports of fatigue and well being the next day due to better sleep. In a separate Japanese study, Glycine has also been shown to improve subjective sleep.

Halson SL. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z). 2014;44(Suppl 1):13-23. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0147-0.

Yamadera W, Inagawa K, Chiba S, Bannai M, Takahashi M, Nakayama K. Glycine ingestion improves subjective sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating with polysomnographic changes. Sleep and Biological Rhythms. 2007;5(2):126-131. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2007.00262.x.

Why this form?

Glycine improves both sleep quality and cognitive daytime function, meaning it can help people function optimally during both daytime and nighttime. There also does not appear to be any side-effects with taking Glycine (especially since supplements tend to be around the 1-3g range, and doses of up to 45g have been used without apparent side effects).

Can be found in

High protein products, meat products, fish, legumes, and dairy products

Asian Ginseng Extract

Asian Ginseng Extract

What is this ingredient known for?

Asian Ginseng has been used in Chinese traditional / herbal medicine for thousands of years.

Why are we using it in Power On?

Function #1: Ginseng (RG1) helps increase muscle performance.

Studies show that Rg1 reduces free radical production and muscle inflammation during and after exercise. In one study, Rg1 enhanced endurance performance at high exercise intensity compared with placebo in untrained men. Increased oxidative stress by muscle contraction reduces performance over time, and Rg1 seems to be associated with reduced oxidative markers, enhancing skeletal muscle output for a longer period of time by preserving mitochondrial function in a reduced free radical environment.

Hou C, Lee S, Kao C et al. Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1. PLOS ONE. 2015;10(1):e0116387. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116387.

Function #2: Panax Ginseng may enhance working memory.

Evidence suggests that supplementation of Panax Ginseng elicits cognitive improvements. In one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 30 young adults’ cognitive performances and mental fatigue were observed and measured. Results were noted, with the performances of young adults given Panax Ginseng performing significantly better on tasks and reporting reduced mental fatigue compared to placebo subjects.

Reay J, Scholey A, Kennedy D. Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. 2010;25(6):462-471. doi:10.1002/hup.1138.

Why this form?

We use a highly standardized and high quality source of Ginseng that high percentage of ginsenosides. This is the most important component of the Asian or American ginseng that offers the effects studied.

Can be found in:

Asian ginseng